Science for the Public and more…

Posts tagged ‘literacy’

Website Article

Middle school boys who are reluctant readers value reading more after using e-readers.

New Books for Reluctant Readers Coming in July…

My reluctant reader series “The Aquitaine Reluctant Reader Series”
will kick off in July with Book 1, “Looking at the Cat; an Eye on Evolution”, written for kids in Grades 9 – 12 who can read but don’t like to read.
Cat Book Cover-3


Writing Science for the Public #3

1-It is about the people. Let’s say that your topic is Chlamydia. I know and you know that you can write something perfectly interesting about Chlamydia without mentioning people, but the truth is the article will be more interesting if includes people. Readers want to hear about people. If your story is about Chlamydia, it is really about Chlamydia and people. If you don’t know anyone with Chlamydia find someone who does, or, perhaps less awkwardly, find out who revealed the biological story of Chlamydia (seems to be this amazing and rarely written about fellow–

2-Your story needs a happening part. If you string together paragraphs of facts, you have not written a story. You have written a textbook and for as much as teachers tell students otherwise, textbooks are boring. Something needs to happen in the story and then either resolve or conspicuously fail to resolve. What happens can be funny. It can be serious. It can be funny and then serious and then funny again, but it has to happen (Conspicuously, I have given this advice in post in which absolutely nothing happens).

3-It is easier to write a simple story. Look, while you are reading this you are thinking of ways around my suggestions. “Oh,” you might think, “I could write a compelling story without mention of people or characters in which absolutely nothing happens. It will be about a rare beetle.” I bet you could. I believe in you. But to do so is to do things the hard way. Just a piece of advice here. If you are just starting in science writing, you might want to avoid always doing things the hard way.

4-Nouns not adjectives. The temptation in writing a story is to use piles of adjectives to describe the beauty, awe, tininess, sublimity, grandness and awkward bumbling of whatever it is you are writing about. Don’t. Use strong nouns and verbs. Write simple sentences.

5—Sound like you. Your voice should be your own. If you are writing what someone else could write, well, you can take it easy and let them do it.

6-Be relevant. Scientists are trained to study marginal topics. Suggest to a PhD candidate that they might focus on a common relevant species and they will, with a natural inevitability, disappear into the rain forest to study something obscure instead. Perhaps it is reasonable for scientists to focus on the obscure; in the margins we hope for big discoveries others missed. It is not reasonable for writers, unless, in that obscure, the reader can see a broader story, a story relevant to millions of people.

7-Tell the readers what they want to know (Pity the reader).Write for the readers. When I talk about ants, people almost always ask, “what should I do about ants in my kitchen?” It took me a decade to realize this was my listener/reader saying, “this is the only way your topic was even remotely interesting to me.” You don’t have to give readers the answers they want, but if the reader has a natural reason for caring about your topic, don’t avoid it. Your goal as a writer is to engage as many people as possible in ways that might affect their lives. This stands in contrast to your goal when writing scientific papers which is, as near as I can figure, to write a paper that appeals to thirty people and, in doing so, avoid affecting them in any real way (lest they give you an unfavorable review).

8-Even if it is not about people, it is about people.

9-If you write about scientists, make them human. This doesn’t mean make them seem ordinary if they are not. Scientists include ordinary people. Now that I’ve said that, let’s be more honest, they also include a fair number of folks incapable of navigating the aisles of the supermarket. Tell it like it is—I know a scientist who walked to work wearing two different shoes and only realized it on the way home (OK, that was me, but I digress)—but even odd scientists have ordinary struggles. By making scientists human you let the readers know scientists have daily struggles, problems buying cars, issues finding the right the schools for their kids. You want your reader to relate to the characters in your story.

10-Know your stuff. You need to know a story better to write about it for the public than you need to do to write about it for scientists. To write about a story for non-scientists you need to capture the big story and explain complex topics in ways intelligible to folks for whom the topics are new. Don’t shy away from complex ideas, but explain them with clarity. Doing this requires you to know the details AND the broad picture. Imagine you are trying to figure out things about the field you are writing about that the experts missed.

11-Tritrophic is not a real word. Your reader does not know the words tritrophic, ecological assemblage, genomics or parthenogenesis. That is not because your reader is dumb. It is because scientists made up those words and never told anyone but other scientists. Don’t underestimate the intelligence of your readers. Readers can be very clever, but it is not their job to know all of the words that you and the twelve people you call colleagues made up.

12-Share your joy. You are writing about science because you like science. Your reader is reading about science because he or she likes science. If you share your joy in a piece of the scientific world the reader may well feel joy too. If they do, they might send you a letter and you will feel joy again (After thinking, “I’ll be dammed, an actual paper letter.).

13-Your story can turn at the end in a way that changes the perspective of the reader. It is a great sensation if, at the end of the story, we see the topic you are writing about in a new light. In a short article, this turn is most easily made in the last paragraph. If you are writing a book, well, you have bigger problems.

14-Delete. Cut mercilessly (says the guy who has just written a 1300 word list). Cut extra words. Cut paragraphs. Be wariest of sentences and paragraphs you love; they have a tendency to stick around even when they don’t help. As Arthur Quiller-Couch said, murder your darlings. Delete whole essays. Winnow. Writing improves with practice and winnowing is part of practice. Fill your trashcans with attempts. Fill them with whole books. Share what is left over, the cut stone of a story, a stone that anyone would agree shines. Then start over, and when you do, remember it is about the people.

Using Correct Grammar

Those grammar classes seem like eons ago. Now we’re writers and we’re not as sure as we used to be. Years of exposure to lazy writing and editing by publishers and the media make things sound right, just because we’ve heard them over and over. As an editor, I’m offering some tidbits that I hope will help you refine your writing.

Phrase vs. Clause
A phrase is a group of grammatically related words that does not contain a main verb. T e wards in the phrase act as a unit, usually functioning as a part of speech. For example:
The girl is in school today, but tomorrow she is going to hunt. Notice that ” in school ” and “to hunt” are phrases functioning as adverbs describing a place or activity. “The girl” is a phrase in the sense that the words go together as determiner and noun, but it does not function as a part of speech.
A clause is a group of grammatically related words that does contain a main verb_
Some clauses can stand alone as complete sentences. Such clauses are called main or
independent clauses. For example: The girl is at home today, but tomorrow she is going hunting.
The two clauses in this sentence are “The girl is in school today” and “tomorrow she is going to hunt.” The joining word “but” is simply a connecting word; it does not belong to either clause. Either clause, therefore, can stand alone, expressing a complete thought:
The girl is in school today. (complete thought) Tomorrow she is going to hunt. (complete thought)
Other clauses are prevented from standing alone because they begin with words that limit their meaning, words like because and when. Such clauses are called subordinate or dependent clauses. For example: The boy quit school because he missed too many classes. “The boy quit school” is a complete thought and, therefore, a main clause. “Because he missed too many classes ” is an incomplete thought and, therefore, a subordinate clause. The “because” leaves us wondering what went before.

COMMON ERROR: A common writing fault is to separate two independent clauses with a comma (with no conjunction after it).
INCORRECT: They have a fly casting class here, the students like it.
CORRECT: They have a fly casting class here. The students like it.
CORRECT They have a fly casting class here, and the students like it.

What’s the Object?
As a part of the sentence, an object is a word that receives the action of an action verb. For example, in the sentence The batter hit the ball, the action of hitting has a receiver, ball. The ball receives the action and is, therefore, called the object of the verb.
There are two kinds of objects: direct and indirect. The word that receives the action of the verb is called the direct object. When the direct object is passed indirectly to another receiver, that receiver is the indirect object. For example: My sister writes me long letters.
The direct object is “letters.” The indirect object is “me.” “Letters” receives the action of writing, while “me” receives the letters. One way to tell the two objects apart is that the indirect object usually comes directly after the verb.
Another way to determine which object is which is to ask these questions about the verb:
1. “Writes” what? Answer. “letters,” so direct object.
2. “Writes” to whom or for whom? Answer: “me,” so indirect object
Some verbs that often take indirect objects are: write, send, tell, give, buy, and sell.

Interrogative Pronoun?
Standard forms of this pronoun include: what, which, who, whom, whose. These pronouns are used to introduce questions: What are the odds? Who left the gate open? Which is mine?
NOTE: The subject pronoun “who” has the object form “whom.” It is the pronoun most often misused in the media today.
The tendency for many speakers is to avoid whom altogether and use who as both subject and object. This is no longer viewed as a serious error. However, using whom where the subject form is called for is an error to be avoided at all costs. For example:
ACCEPTABLE: Who are you calling?
CORRECT Whom are you calling?

INCORRECT: Whom is coming with us to the lodge?
CORRECT Who is coming with us to the lodge?

Demonstrative Pronoun
Standard forms of this pronoun are: this, that, these, those. These pronouns are used to stand for a noun and separate it from other entities. For example:
Is this the one you wanted? land me those.
NOTE: Generally speaking, use this and these to indicate items near the speaker, and that and those for items farther away. Notice that demonstrative pronouns replace the noun. The same words – this, that, these, and those – are also used as “demonstrative determiners” or demonstrative adjectives.” For example: This woods is dark. (Here “this” is specifying the noun “woods,” telling us which woods.)

Relative Pronoun
The relative pronouns are that, who, whom, which, where, when, and why. Like other pronouns, the relative pronoun replaces a noun. Like a conjunction, it serves as a joining word
between clauses. For example:
That’s the man who shot my deer.
The word “who” is a relative pronoun. It stands for “man” and it (inks the main clause “That’s the man” to the dependent clause “who shot my deer.”

Often such sentences begin the article. In other cases, summary sentences
are preceded by one or a few sentences designed to stimulate additional
reader interest in the topic. The opening sentences are known
as the “lead.”
Leads tend to follow one of four major formats: the simple
statement, the bullet lead, the narrative lead, and the surprise
or paradox lead.
Some of these leads allow the writer considerable room
for creativity.

The Simple Statement and Bullet Leads
The first lead is a simple but dramatic statement of the major finding,
usually in a single sentence, such as a simple statement that “The Zika Virus Can be Sexually Transmitted”.
A more interesting lead, but one that is more challenging to write, is
called the Bullet Lead.
Actually, it consists of three bullets, which are always
followed by the general summary statement. For example:
• We all know people who have trained their dogs to fetch the daily
newspaper without tearing it.
• Similarly, we all know that horses can be
trained to respond to the slightest movement of their riders and
• We all know that goldfish can be trained to come to the front of the fish bowl at
the sound of a bell.
Now it turns out that even octopi (Octopus vulgarus) can be trained to perform certain simple tasks and that they actually learn those tasks more quickly from each other than from a human trainer.
If the bullets are fired successfully, by the end of the third “bullet”, the
reader is wondering how the individual bullets are related and where they
are “leading.”

Just at that moment, the skillful writer answers those
questions; if done properly, the reader wants to read more.

The Narrative Lead
The narrative lead tells a story of some sort, and then follows up with the
summary sentence:
Sitting at the bottom of a large glass tank is a 2-pound octopus. The
octopus has been trained for several weeks to avoid balls of one color
and to pick up balls of a different color. Every day for 6 hours he has
been rewarded with food for choosing the right balls, and punished
with mild electric shocks for choosing the wrong ones. Now, he sits
idly in the tank, his eyes apparently following every movement of
the researchers as they prepare to set up the next experiment,
his mantle cavity filling and emptying in a consistent respiratory
The researchers bring over a tank containing another octopus,
one that was freshly collected that morning from the warm and inviting
waters just outside the marine laboratory. The two octopi quickly crawl
toward each other in their respective tanks, peering through the glass
with apparent interest. “Now watch this,” one of the researchers says
to the newcomer, as she puts the trained octopus through his morning
paces. The newly collected octopus watches, and seems genuinely
interested in what the other octopus is doing. Now the researchers offer
the same choices to the new octopus. Remarkably, after watching only
four trials, the observing octopus chooses the correct ball over the other
one in every one of the trials.
The surprising finding that octopi can learn from watching
each other was recently published in the research journal Science
by two biologists working at laboratories on the Italian coast.

The Surprise or Paradox Lead
This lead tries to arouse the reader’s attention by making a surprising or
paradoxical statement then following up with the summary sentence.

For example:
Biologists, for years, have spent many tedious hours training animals
to perform simple tasks, by rewarding the desired behavior and
punishing the undesired behavior. Now, it seems at least some
animals may learn far more quickly by simply watching each other than
by being trained by humans.
Two Italian scientists, Professor Graziano Fiorito and Professor
Pietro Scotto, announced in a recent issue of the research journal
Science, that the common octopus can not only be trained to distinguish
between objects of different colors, but can in fact learn to make these
distinctions even more quickly by simply watching each other.

Query Letter Mistakes

Cheesy lead. Don’t be cute. Skip the rhetorical questions. The “What if you were stuck on a sailboat in a hurricane with a mysterious killer” teasers get old fast. Better to lead with the facts; otherwise your reader may feel as if you’re trying to manipulate him or her to create more sensation than pure fact warrants.

Addressing the Editor. Do Not begin the query with “Hey…” It is disrespectful and may stop an editor on the spot! It reeks of unprofessionalism and childishness.

Bobbled blurbs. The biggest problems we see with blurbs are 1) too many characters and secondary characters when only the main character should be the emotional hook, 2) a description that’s more thematic than plot-driven (i.e., this book is about peace and love), 3) the author attempts to tell the whole story, including the ending, when he or she should use the blurb as a teaser instead.

Appearance. The letter looks bad, smells, is printed on cheap paper or photocopied, etc. We also receive e-queries that are poorly formatted (all caps, colored and silly fonts, goofy pictures in the signature line) or that lose their formatting once they are sent. TIP: Do yourself a favor and test your e-query to make sure it keeps its formatting by sending it to a bunch of your family members and friends to see what it looks like in their inboxes. Then you can send it to agents.

Mentioning prior manuscripts (and/or certain self-published books). If you’ve written three unpublished book manuscripts in the past, best not to mention them. Otherwise the agent in question may be intimidated by your prior projects, thinking, “If I take on his/her current project, the writer will probably pester me to represent all those previous books that, for whatever reason, didn’t sell.” The same goes for self-published manuscripts, which agents will look at the same way as unpublished manuscripts UNLESS you have significant accolades for your self-published book.

The multiple personality bio. Often writers will inadvertently begin their bios in first person, but wind up in third. Be on the lookout for pronouns gone wild! Also, some bios will begin in present tense, but then end in past. And, as always, it helps to have a strong bio.

Groveling. It may seem like it makes sense to acknowledge your own humility by pointing out a lack of experience, but resist this urge. Confidence wins hearts.

TMI. While it’s always good to convey your own unique personality in your bio, be careful not to include too much information. If your novel is about sailors, it may help to include your background in the Coast Guard. Be personable and interesting, but do so with care.

Listing publishing credits that aren’t really publishing credits. Be careful that the publishing credentials you’re listing are not part of poetry contest scams or anthology scams. Including bad credits suggests you don’t know the market (and therefore don’t know good writing).

Copyright. Industry standard is to not include the copyright symbol on your work.

Cover art. If you include cover art, you show a) that you don’t know how the industry works (since writers get almost no say over their covers), and b) that you might just be the kind of high-maintenance writer who wants complete control.

If you flatter, mean it. Agents can often see straight through the “I greatly admire your agency” bit; they know a generic form letter compliment when they see one. If you’re going to take the approach of flattery, be specific in your praise.

Some common phrases that authors should NEVER use in query letters:
This is the first book I’ve ever written! If this is true, you don’t need to say it; better to position yourself as a person who knows the biz (which means you must be a person who knows it!).

I’ve been writing since I was five. Writers who feel compelled to explain that “I’ve been writing since I was X years old” or that “It is my greatest wish to get published” inadvertently declare to editors, “I am a newbie.” It’s presumed that you’ve been writing since you were X years old and now want to get a book published. That’s what every writer wants.

This would make a great movie. Almost everyone thinks his or her book could be a great movie. You want your query letter to ask your agent to do one thing and one thing only: represent and sell your BOOK—not a screenplay, not a series of action figures, not your foreign rights. Let the publisher in question decide if your book is screen worthy or not.

This book will appeal to readers of all genres. Editors want to work with writers who understand that each genre appeals to a very specific demographic. When you say, “This appeals to everyone,” an agent will read, “This appeals to no one in particular.”

My friends/parents/teachers like my writing. We often read how new writers get a favorable response to their writing from close ones. But unless your mom or dad is a renowned literary critic, leave off any amateur praise.

Oprah will love this book. If the story is solid and the writing is strong, there’s no reason an author should feel obligated to proclaim that a book is the next Harry Potter. Don’t promise what you have no control over. Your work should speak for itself.

Grammar Essentials #1

Problem Words/Phrases
Here is another set of words and/or phrases that can cause problems with your writing.

  • As to whether. Use whether; it is whether or not. If you are not showing an alternative, use if.
  • Basically, essentially, totally. Try the sentence without them. Minimize “ly” words.
  • Equally as. Use equally important or as important as, but not equally as important.
  • Got. Try to avoid it. I have got to must begin working on it now. I have got three pairs of jeans.
  • In order to. Particularly annoying to me. Use to.
  • Lots or lots of. Avoid these when you can use many or much. Lots of something is considered plural. Also, a lot of requires three words not alot of.
  • Orientate. New employees become oriented, not orientated.
  • Plus. This word should not be used as a conjunction. Use and instead.
  • Point in time. Use at this time or at this point or now.
  • So as to. A simple to will do.

On Promoting Literacy and Skilled Communication

A long-awaited federal study found that an estimated 32 million adults in the USA — about one in seven — are saddled with such low literacy skills it would be tough for them to read anything more challenging than a children’s picture book or to understand a medication’s side effects listed on a pill bottle, according to USA Today.
Overall, the study found, the nation hasn’t made a dent in its adult-literacy problem: From 1992 to 2003, it shows the USA added about 23 million adults to its population; in that period, an estimated 3.6 million more joined the ranks of adults with low literacy skills. “They really cannot read … paragraphs (or) sentences that are connected,” says Sheida White, a researcher at the U.S. Education Department.
The findings come from the department’s National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL), a survey of more than 19,000 Americans ages 16 and older. The 2003 survey was a follow-up to a similar one in 1992 and, for the first time, allows the public to see literacy rates as far down as county levels. In many cases, states made sizable gains. In Mississippi, the percentage of adults with low skills dropped 9 percentage points, from 25 percent to 16 percent. In every one of its 82 counties, low-skill rates dropped — in a few cases by 20 percentage points or more. By contrast, in several large states — California, New York, Florida and Nevada, for instance — the number of adults with low skills rose.
These statistics are not surprising; they are shocking, numbing to be exact. How could this country, be so ‘advanced’, yet be so illiterate? Does it mean that literacy is not really important? Can we, as a country, continue to ‘advance’ without being able to communicate? Or, are the illiterate masses just dead-weight and can be ignored like sticks on a woodland trail?
Let’s begin to ponder this by agreeing on a definition of literacy. The United Nations Education, Social and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) defines literacy as “the ability to identify, understand, interpret, create, communicate, compute and use printed and written materials associated with varying contexts. Literacy involves a continuum of learning to enable an individual to achieve his or her goals, to develop his or her knowledge and potential, and to participate fully in the wider society.”(NRC 2012) But, let’s also look at other definitions that are in use.
Various government agencies label individuals who can read a couple of thousand simple words they learned by sight in the first four grades in school as literate. Other sources may term such individuals functionally illiterate if they are unable to use basic sources of written information like warning labels and driving directions. The World Factbook, prepared by the CIA, defines literacy in the United States as “age 15 and over can read and write.” In most, if not all, cases, the literacy rates are not entirely measurable.
This, then, is the first issue of contention when discussing literacy, “What is the definition of literacy?” I submit, as a leader of a non-profit group founded to promote literacy, the UNESCO definition comes closest to describing literacy. Literacy is more than just being able to read and maybe comprehend a few words or sign your name on a document. It includes an important factor, life-time learning. As a literate person, you can read the newspaper, read magazines, read candidate literature, so that when you go to the polls to vote, you are an informed voter. As a literate person, you provide yourself with the tools necessary to access information, interpret that information and use it to “participate fully in the wider society.”
It is in being able to interpret accurately information, where one in seven adults in America runs into trouble. The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) says these people can only read at the level of children’s picture books. True, some of the advertising and even candidate literature seems to be not too far above that level. Though this sounds cynical, the point is the people who write this information know their readers aren’t capable of reading at any higher level. Case in point, in marketing material I received, one of the recommendations was “Your script should be simple and clear enough for a six-year-old to understand.” For as long as I can remember, educators have said newspapers are written to the eighth grade level. Where does that leave one in seven adults in this country? In the dark, unable to read information about current events, not knowing, or at least not reading first hand, news about the NSA debacle or the current changes to health care in this country, for instance.
Healthcare, is a topic that concerns nearly every adult. Many U.S. adults lack health literacy or the ability to read and follow the kinds of instructions routinely given for self-care or to family caregivers after medical procedures or hospital stays. Physicians routinely discuss medications with their patients when they prescribe them. But, do patients understand the physician? Many do not. This is dangerous. Consider a patient in severe pain who may have been prescribed narcotic pain medication that can be toxic at higher levels, but it doesn’t work well immediately; so, the patient takes more pills. The patient is unable to read the warnings distributed with the medication, stating that taking more medication than is prescribed is harmful. The patient is unable to read and/or comprehend the list of side effects and information as to symptoms of overdose. Because the patient can’t read or interpret this information, his/her life is now threatened unless there is immediate intervention.
The website is yet another stumbling block for people who lack literacy efficiency. Reading, understanding, interpreting and choosing the right plan for them could be an impossibility, assuming they were able to navigate the website to get to the marketplace listing the over 100 plans available. Assuming the person gets to the plan market place, he/she will probably just pick one, with no understanding of the plan, it’s coverage or cost. This person is unlikely to ask for help. Most people, who are illiterate, hide their handicap well, through years of practice. At any rate, this person now has a plan but has no idea what it covers. How many people are in this situation? Over 32 million adults, the NAAL study found.
Data from the NAAL and other surveys and assessments are likely to underestimate the problem of literacy in the United States. Literacy demands are increasing because of the rapid growth of information and communication technologies, while the literacy assessments to date have focused on the simplest forms of literacy skill. And, it’s getting worse. The reading skills of American adults are significantly lower than those of adults in most other developed countries, according to a new international survey. What’s more, over the last two decades Americans’ reading proficiency has declined across most age groups, and has only improved significantly for 65-year-olds. The study of 160,000 people by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), which is composed of two dozen developed nations, found that U.S. adults had reading levels that were below average.
Kozol (2011) stated that given a paycheck and the stub that lists the usual deductions, 26 percent of adult Americans cannot determine if their paycheck is correct. Thirty-six percent, given a W-4 form, cannot enter the right number of exemptions in the proper places on the form. Forty-four percent, when given a series of “help-wanted” ads, cannot match their qualifications to the job requirements. Twenty-two percent cannot address a letter well enough to guarantee that it will reach its destination. Twenty-four percent cannot add their own correct return address to the same envelope. Twenty percent cannot understand an “equal opportunity” announcement. Over 60 percent, given a series of “for sale” advertisements for products new and used, cannot calculate the difference between prices for new and used items. Over 20 percent cannot write a check that will be processed by their bank—or will be processed in the right amount. Over 40 percent are unable to determine the correct amount of change they should receive, given a cash register receipt and the denomination of the bill used for payment.
So, what can be done to improve adult literacy? There is a surprising lack of rigorous research on effective approaches to adult literacy instruction, according to the NAAL report. But, research with younger populations can guide the development of instructional approaches for adults, if it is modified to account for two major differences in the groups.
One is that adults may experience age-related neurocognitive declines that affect reading and writing processes and speed of learning. The second is that adults bring varied life experiences, knowledge and motivations for learning that need attention in the design of literacy instruction for them. Literacy is a complex skill that requires thousands of hours of practice, but many adults do not persist in adult literacy instruction long enough or have enough time to practice outside the instructional setting to reach their goals. The problem of high attrition needs to be resolved for adults to receive sufficient practice and instruction (NRC 2012).
In general, adults have been slower than younger people to embrace the technological revolution that began in the last decades of the 20th century. Technology affects nearly every aspect of life in the 21st century from how we “talk” with our family and friends, to how we shop, to how and where we work. Quicker and more efficient transportation and communication services have made it easier for people, goods, services and capital to move around the world, leading to the globalization of economies. New means of communication and types of services have changed the way individuaOECD,ls interact with governments, service suppliers and each other. These social and economic transformations have, in turn, changed the demand for skills as well. While there are many factors responsible for these changes, let us look briefly at technological developments, particularly information and communications technologies, because they have profoundly altered what are considered to be the “key information-processing skills” that individuals need as economies and societies evolve in the 21st century.
With manufacturing and other low-skill tasks in the services sector increasingly becoming automated, the need for routine cognitive and craft skills is declining, while the demand for information-processing skills and other high-level cognitive and interpersonal skills is growing. In addition to mastering occupation-specific skills, workers in the 21st century must also have a stock of information-processing skills, including literacy, numeracy and problem solving, and “generic” skills, such as interpersonal communication, self-management, and the ability to learn, to help them prepare for the uncertainties of a rapidly changing labor market.
Improving the supply of skills is only half the story: skills shortages co-exist with high unemployment; and better use can be made of existing skills. There is growing interest among policy makers not only in creating the right incentives for firms and individuals to invest in developing skills, but also in ensuring that economies fully use the skills available to them. To that end, the OECD Skills Strategy emphasized three pillars: developing relevant skills, activating skills supply, and putting skills to effective use (OECD 2012).
Four major national literacy efforts now exist in this country. One is the government’s official program, Adult Basic Education (ABE). A second is the U.S. military’s program of remediation for its recruits. Together, these two efforts claim to reach between 2 and 3 million people. The military, however, usually does not accept a person reading at below the fifth grade level. Adult Basic Education is not legally restricted from admitting persons reading at the lowest levels; but, the traditional modes of ABE discourage their participation. Its methods of recruitment, institutional setting, replication of a school-like situation, physical distance from the neighborhoods in which the poorest and least literate people live, as well as the mechanistic nature of the methods it employs, have virtually assured that few of those who read below the fifth grade level will begin, complete, or ever have a chance to hear about its programs.
For those who do participate, the figures for “separation” or incompletion are disastrous. Forty percent of those who enter ABE are “separated.” Only thirty percent of those who leave these programs prior to completion do so because they have achieved their goals. Other reasons given in a recent poll are: inconvenient scheduling of classes, physical distance causing transportation problems, change of address, conflicts with employers, lack of interest … All, with the possible exception of employer conflicts, apply with equal force to dropout rates from public schools. Those who failed in public school are those, too frequently, who will be failed by ABE as well. The other two programs are privately supported. Laubach Literacy serves fifty thousand people. Literacy Volunteers of America (LVA) serves twenty thousand. These and several church-run programs do effective work with those they reach; but those they reach, are very few when looking at the 32 million NAAL found who are illiterate (Kozol 2011).
How do the illiterate find out about these programs? There are advertisements in newspapers, on community bulletin boards and in church bulletins. An often seen and used cartoon critical of these announcements says: “If you can’t read this message call 1-800-LIT-ERAT.” On a more serious side, employers assist employees that are found to have low skill literacy by recommending classes given in the company or in a community college setting. However, these are the functionally illiterate and may be more motivated to improve their skills. If they are illiterate, their having a job or any means of gainful employment might be nearly impossible. They would either be unaware or ineligible to participate in any of these programs.
The NRC (2012) said a significant portion of the U.S. population was likely to continue, at least in the near term, to experience inadequate literacy and require instruction as adults: the most recent main National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) (2009) showed only 38 percent of twelfth graders performed at or above the proficient level in reading; this achievement was higher than the percentage in 2005; but not significantly different from earlier assessment years. Although 74 percent of twelfth graders were at or above basic, 26 percent were below basic near the end of high school. When taking into account race and ethnicity, only 22 percent were at or above basic reading levels near the end of high school; 78 percent were below basic. Results were similar for twelfth graders with disabilities: 38 percent were at or above basic reading levels; 62 percent were below basic.
Given these statistics, it is not surprising that, although originally designed for older adults, adult literacy education programs increasingly are attended by youths ages 16 to 20. In 2003, more than half of participants in federally funded adult literacy programs were 25 or younger.
The problem of inadequate literacy was also found by colleges, especially community colleges. More than half of community college students enroll in at least one developmental education course during their college tenure to remediate weak skills. Data from an initiative called Achieving the Dream: Community Colleges Count provide the best information on students’ difficulties in remedial instruction. The study included more than 250,000 students from 57 colleges in seven states who were enrolled for the first time from fall 2003 to fall 2004. Of the total, 59 percent were referred for remedial instruction, and 33 percent of the referrals were specifically for reading. After 3 years, fewer than 4 in 10 students had completed the entire sequence of remedial courses to which they had been referred. About 30 percent of students referred to developmental education did not enroll in any remedial course, and about 60 percent of those who did enroll did not enroll in the specific course to which they had been referred. Notably, according to the NAAL survey, proficiency in prose literacy was evident in only 31 percent of U.S. adults with a 4-year college degree.
A major problem for literacy programs across the country is funding. While the number of adults seeking help grows year by year, government funding for literacy programs remains low, given the extent of the problem. From 1975 through 1999, the number of adults enrolled in programs funded by the U.S. Department of Education’s Division of Adult Education and Literacy increased from 1.2 million in 1975 to 4.3 million in 1999, or by about 118,000 per year. The total annual government expenditure for adults in literacy education programs is approximately $310 per enrollee. By contrast, the government spends about $7,500 per enrollee in the K–12 system and $16,000 per enrollee in the higher education system. As a result, adult literacy programs are often under-funded (ProLiteracy America 2003).
The current Federal appropriation ($571,000,000) coupled with state and local funds ($1.6 billion) allow ONLY 3 percent of the 90,000,000 who could benefit from adult education to access classes and other services. There is an educational services waiting list of a minimum of 100,000 adults, according to the National Council of State Directors of Education (2009). Education grants are available to colleges and universities, but not to individuals, at least in numbers that would be beneficial.
In summary, It is clear that a significant proportion of U.S. adults do not have the
high level of literacy in both print and digital media required for negotiating many aspects of life in the 21st century. More than 90 million U.S. adults are estimated to lack adequate literacy; only 38 percent of U.S. twelfth graders are at or above ‘proficient’ in reading (National Assessment of Educational Progress 2008) and more than 50 percent of recent 250,000 community college student enrollees were referred to at least one developmental (remedial) education course to remediate weak skills during their college tenure, with about one-third of them referred specifically for reading. Furthermore, the estimated 2.6 million adults enrolled in federally funded programs in 2005 showed variable progress in their literacy skills, and their skill gains were insufficient to achieve functional literacy.
There is a surprising lack of research on the effectiveness of the various instructional practices for adults seeking to improve their literacy skills. The lack of relevant research is especially striking given the long history of both federal funding for adult education programs, albeit stretched thin, and reliance on developmental education courses to remediate college students’ skills. Few studies of adult literacy focus on the development of reading and writing
skills. There is also inadequate knowledge about assessment and ongoing monitoring of adult students’ proficiencies, weaknesses, instructional environments, and progress, which might guide instructional planning.
Though there is a dearth of relevant research with the target adult population,
extensive research on reading and writing processes and difficulties of younger students, emerging research on literacy and learning in adolescents and adults with normal reading
capability, and extremely limited research on adult literacy learners is available. Until
the necessary research is conducted with adults who receive literacy instruction outside the K-12 system, I conclude that it is reasonable to apply the wealth of available research on learning and literacy with other populations on the adult population. Findings from this research can provide guidance about the reading and writing skills to target with instruction and principles for designing instructional practices, technologies, assessments, and preparation for teachers.
The contexts in which adults receive literacy instruction are highly varied. People who need to develop their literacy skills receive instruction in many different types of programs, including adult basic education, community colleges, general educational development (GED) programs or ABE programs, workplace literacy programs, university remedial education programs, citizenship programs, English language learning programs, basic skills and job training centers, among others. While some of the adults receiving literacy instruction may have attained certain levels and forms of literacy, they lack the range and level of reading and writing skills required for education, work, parental and family responsibilities, and other purposes. The literature on adult literacy indicates that a wide range of largely untested theoretical frameworks, practices, texts, and tools are used in literacy instruction with adults. At present, there are neither clear objectives for the development of literacy skills nor standards for curricula and practice that take into consideration research on component reading and writing skills, valued literacy tasks linked to learning goals, and the social and cultural backgrounds and motivations of learners. Programs also differ in whether they provide or facilitate access to services for transportation, child care, and psychological counseling, which might affect the ability of certain segments of the population to engage in and persist with learning.
In conclusion, the outlook is bleak. It is clear the literacy problems of adults will continue well into the 21st century. We honestly don’t know how to fix them. Research isn’t there nor is the funding available to facilitate the research. This reality indicates to me that we, as a country, will continue to fall behind other developed nations, because literacy is the key to progress.

Kozol, Jonathan. 2011. Illiterate America (Kindle Locations 214-215). Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
NRC (National Research Council). 2012. Improving Adult Literacy Instruction: Options for Practice and Research. The National Academies Press,
National Council of State Directors of Education. 2009. Adult Education and Literacy Fact Sheet. Washington, DC.
OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). 2013. The Survey of Adult Skills: Reader’s Companion. OECD Publishing,
ProLiteracy America. 2003. U.S. Adult Literacy Programs: A Review of Research on Positive Outcomes Achieved by Literacy Programs and the People They Serve.

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The Path
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